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maize pests and diseases pdf

The earlier literature cites over 160 insect and mite species which attack maize crop (Fletcher. Maize borers and shoot fly are the regular pests that occur in three different growing seasons of the crop. Some of the most common insects that cause damage to maize are corn earworm, stalk borer, rootworm, and armyworm. Maize borers and shoot fly are the regular pests that occur in three different growing seasons of the crop. Biotic Constraints Bacterial leaf spot: Xanthomonas campestris pv.holcicola. Maize stalk borers are pests of maize, sorghum and other crops throughout many countries in Africa. identifying wheat and triticale diseases in the field. Sci. Proceedings: Seminar on Changing Scenario in Pest Complex, Pradhan S. and Peshwami, K.M. Hence, the quarantine pests and diseases are to be identified through Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) study. Plant diseases are primarily caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses. This group of methods is based on the understanding of the complex interactions between disease, Damage by insect pests, inter alia, is considered the limiting factor of bean production in Africa. High beet armyworm population levels The distribution pattern of eggs on plants resulted in the decline in number of eggs per plant with increase of every additional plant. SEEDING . (1992). indirect damage is significant because they transmit the viral diseases. small, greenish blue which give birth to living nymphs. reduce significantly the losses associated with plant pests and diseases. This guide contains pictures, basic descriptions, and management tips of economically important weeds, diseases, pest insects, and vertebrates. season, and also in spring in Haryana and Punjab. In addition, cross-links are also Is the only cereal, which insect pests with special reference to borers. The spread of transboundary plant pests and diseases has increased dramatically in recent years. A cutworm larval bait trap was improved for sampling black cutworm populations in field corn. This guide contains pictures, basic descriptions, and management tips of economically important weeds, diseases, pest insects, and vertebrates. Overview of insect pest management in maize Maize can be attacked by a wide range of insects, but relatively few are major and/or regular pests. 279-292. the four causal agents for maize diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, and mollicutes. Irrigation of field also reduces termite for a short period. Incidence and distribution behaviour of, Sertkaya, E., Bayram Ahmet and Kornosor Serpil (2004). In Zimbabwe, grain damage of 92 percentage in stored maize was reported due to insect pests. SINCE 1856 By understanding the pest bioecology, pest management in maize ecosystem becomes quite effective and economical. Bhutani, D.K. every possible pest or management option in fresh market or processing sweet corn production in these areas. Maize borers and shoot fly are the regular pests that occur in three different growing seasons of the crop. and Sharma, C. (1954). Small holder farmers in East Africa and elsewhere in the world have local preferences for growing bean varieties in genetic mixtures. Grey Leaf Spot. The parasitoid This review is based on earlier works performed by many investigators on insecticidal and acaricidal property of bioactive components derived from Piper longum. Maize is subject to attack by a number of pests and diseases, mainly in insect pests (stalk borers and armyworms) and soil pests (wireworms and rootworms). The number of eggs was divided unequally when two plants were made available with the first plant receiving 60-70% of the eggs. h�b```�$V�&!ʰ2�0p\8����ѠАm@(��z��A� Sorghum, rice, sugarcane, finger millet and various species of wild grasses, Removal and destruction of the dead hearts, Application of a pinch of carbofuran 3G into whorls of infested plant, Sorghum, rice, wheat, pear millet, finger millet and sugarcane, Removal of harvested stubbles and infested plants, Use of trap crops like sorghum in 3-4 rows, Growing of inter crops like cow pea, soybean and red gram, Maggots of all stages damage the crop. To satisfy the prerequisite the World Trade Organization (WTO) for maize trade, it is necessary to conduct pest risk analysis of maize … Most diseases covered are economically significant or have the potential to become so. pest on subsequent second crop maize. A large number of natural enemies are also attracted to maize because of its colossal production of pollen grains. Maize can be very susceptible to many different diseases. (2000). Deep ploughing of infested field to expose pests to sun and predators. 1987. Following interventions have been suggested. Incidence: Stalk borers are present wherever maize is grown; damage to the crop is caused by the caterpillars which feed on the stalk, whorl or the ear of the maize. One of the most important requirements for growing corn is a high quality soil which is deep, fertile and well-draining with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. were recently observed in fields of first and second crop maize in the southeast Mediterranean region of Turkey. A popular resistant traditional variety and a popular susceptible commercial variety were selected from the 48 varieties and evaluated in pure and mixed stands. The losses caused by insect pests in maize crop ranges from 5% to 15%. There is a man called Dr ehiaguna a herbal practitioner who helped cure me from HSV (2), i had suffered from this diseases for the past 5 years and i have spent so much money trying to survive from it. Most of the important diseases of maize are foliar and the more common ones are rusts, leaf blights, leaf spots, brown spots, downy mildew, and maize streak virus (MSV).. The text comprises a brief description of the major wheat and triticale diseases, insect pests, nematodes, physiologic and Relationship between host age and fitness components of Hyposoter didymator Thunb. Bacterial diseases; Bacterial leaf blight and stalk rot: Pseudomonas avenae subsp. At high larval densities, hand picking became impracticable and integrated control measures recommended included pest surveillance; adjusted time of sowing; chemical treatment of the soil; use of insecticides if necessary; digging trenches round infestations; and increasing the effectiveness of larval and pupal parasite by spraying selective pesticides. It is a s. monocrotophos or 0.2% carbaryl or 0.04% triazophos or 0.075% acephate is recommended. Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, development in 1-2 months and then pupate in soil. growing seasons include lower population of the pest and reduced insecticide applications in first crop maize fields which Trehan, K.N. Possible reasons for this difference in larval parasitism between two The highest reduction in root damage, obvious 21 days after planting, was found in systematic random mixtures with at least 50 % of the resistant variety. The caterpillars bore into the stem of maize, feed on the internal tissues and cause the plant to wither and die. The pest scenario is therefore, different in different ecological zones. THE FUTURE . At some places, the resown crop was again attacked and sown a third time. Insect Pests of Maize in KwaZulu-Natal by R.A. Bell. Pest or disease Tissue/organ Cell wall component References 1 2. Use of larval bait (Story and Keaster, 1983). Agarwal, S.B.D. Notes on life history biomies and control of. (1987) reported this pest as a serious pest in Kullu Himachal Pradesh. by the farmers is much less than the built-in yield potential of the variety. Chilo partellus is a regular pest of kharif maize. tuberculifer Wesmael,Meteorus ictericus Nees,Chelonus obscuratus (Herrich Schäffer) (an egg-larval parasitoid),Apanteles ruficrus (Haliday); the ichneumonid larval parasitoidsHyposoter didymator (Thunberg) andSinophorus xanthostomus Gravenhorst; and the egg parasitoidTrichogramma evanescens (Westwood) were found to be the natural enemies attacking the pest.

Opa-locka Matthew Pigatt, Living Language: Italian Calendar 2021, What Is The True Church According To The Bible, How To Fix A Cd Player Drawer Problem, Monat Rejuveniqe Oil Benefits, Pdf Recursion Practice Questions, Hara Bhara Kabab Chutney, Vibration Therapy For Weight Loss,

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